Uyghur Omumiy Tarixi

Amérikadiki uyghur tarix penliri doktori nebijan tursun teripidin yézilghan “uyghur omumiy tarixi”
namliq 13 tomluq zor hejimlik eser neshir qilinishqa bashlidi.
Aldi bilen eserning 1944 – yili qurulghan “sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti” ge munasiwetlik 5 tomluq
“sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti omumiy tarixi” qisimliri, yeni “uyghur omumiy tarixi”ning 7- we 8-tomliri
uyghur tetqiqat instituti teripidin neshr qilindi.
Melumki, uyghurlar yawro-asiya xelqliri arisida shanliq qedimiy medeniyet we döletchilik en’eniliri
yaratqan türkiy xelq bolush süpiti bilen ularning bésip ötken köp esirlik siyasiy, ijtimaiy-iqtisadiy,
medeniyet tarixi musapiliri ikki esirdin buyan dunya alimliri teripidin zor sandiki eserlerning, jümlidin
mexsus uyghur tarixi, sherqiy türkistan tarixi eserlirining meydan’gha kélishige asas bolghan bolsimu,
emma téxi hazirghiche uyghur xelqining qedimki dewrlerdin künimizgiche bolghan barliq tarixiy
tereqqiyat jeryanini mupessel yorutup béridighan “omumiy tarixi” meydan’gha kelmigenidi. Doktor
nebijan tursun özining 30 yilgha yéqin japaliq ilmiy hayatini, küch-quwwiti we eqil- idarikini serp qilish
bedilige 13 tomluq “uyghur omumiy tarixi”din ibaret zor hejimlik ilmiy esirini yézip püttürüsh arqiliq bu
boshluqni toldurup xelqimizge teqdim qildi. Qolingizdiki bu kitablar: yeni 5 tomluq “sherqiy türkistan
jumhuriyiti omumiy tarixi” ene shu “uyghur omumiy tarixi”ning terkibiy birqismi bolup, buningda 1943-
yilidin 1950-yillirighiche bolghan ariliqtiki sherqiy türkistan milliy azadliq inqilabi we sherqiy türkistan
jumhuriyiti hem xitay kompartiyesining ishghaliyitige ait pütün jeryanlar, bu jumhuriyetning herbiy-
siyasiy, soda-iqtisadiy, medeniyet we bashqa barliq döletchilik özgichilikliri original höjjetler we
matériyallarni öz ichige alghan mol uyghur menbeliri, bolupmu sowét ittipaqining köp sandiki ilgiri
mutleq mexpiy tutulghan arxip höjjetliri, amérika, teywen arxipliri shuningdek hazirghiche dunyada élan
qilin’ghan rusche, in’glizche, xitayche we bashqa türkiy tillardiki her xil matériyallardin paydilnish asasida
tepsiliy yorutulghan. Bolupmu aptor sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyitige munaswetlik ichki sirlar, xelq’ara
arqa körünüsh we bashqa nazuk, éniqsiz tereplerni yorutushta özining 1990-yillarda moskwada
doktorluq üchün oqush jeryanidin tartip toplap kelgen köp sandiki sowét arxiplirini we bashqa
munasiwetlik höjjetlerni tunji qétim bashqa menbeler shuningdek nechche onlighan jumhuriyet
shahitlirining melumatliri bilen sélishturup analiz qilghan. Mezkur 5 tomluq” sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti
omumiy tarixi” uyghur xelqining musteqil döliti- sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyitini toluq chüshinishi, bilishi
we tejribilerge ige bolushini temin étidu.
Hazirghiche birqisim ellerde mezkur dewrge ait melum sanda mexsus eserler meydan’gha kelgen
bolsimu, emma doktor nebijan tursunning bu esiri bularning ichidiki küchlük akadémik tarixshunasliq
métodologiyesige tayan’ghan eng tepsiliy, eng toluq, eng mukemmel, köp menbelik ilmiy eser bolup
hésablinidu. Oqurmenlerning nöwettiki jiddiy éhtiyajidin chiqish qilip mezkur jumhuriyet dewri qismini
aldi bilen neshir qilip, bashqa tomlarnimu arqimuarqidin oqurmenler hozurigha teqdim qilish qarar
qilindi.
Doktor nebijan tursun “uyghur omumiy tarixi” namliq esirining 7-, 8 – tomlirining neshrdin chiqqanliqi
munasiwiti bilen söz qilip mundaq dédi: ” ikki esirdin buyan tariximizni ruslar, xitaylar we bashqilar
yézip keldi. Xelqimiz bashqilar yazghan uyghur tarixini oqup ganggiridi yaki öz tarixidin sawatsiz
qalduruldi. Shuningdek xitay bolsa öz dölet mewqesi we idélogiyelik nuqtiinezerliri bilen sughurulghan
uyghur tarixlirini xelqimizge tangdi. Mana bu méning bügünki künlerde dunyadiki nopusi eng köp 100
nechche milletning biri we yawro-asiyaning, jümlidin dunyaning qedimiy medeniyet nemunilirini
yaratqan xelqlirining biri bolghan uyghur millitimning tarixini özimiz öz tetiqatlirimiz, öz
nuqtiinezerlirimiz we chüshenchilirimiz bilen yézishimiz kérek, uni özimiz eng mukemmel ,’eng toluq
we akadémiyelik shekilde yézishimiz kérek dégen iradige kélishimdiki tüp seweb idi. Men bu eserni
yézish üchün allah bergen hayatimning texminen 30 yilini serp qildim ! Axiri bu eser yézildi ! Démek
uyghur tarixini bashqilar yézip béridighan ikki esirge yéqin dawamlashqan dewr axirlashti! Men,
>uyghur omumiy tarixi<ing terkibiy qismi bolghan >sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti omumiy tarixi<ni
yézishni 1990-yillarda moskwada bashlighanidim.
Mana bügün, yeni 1933- we 1944-yilliridiki sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyetlirining 12-noyabir xatire
künlirige sowgha süpitide ülgürüp, bu eser dunyagha köz achti ! Qalghan qisimlirimu söyümlük
oqurmenlirim bilen eng téz arida yüz körüshküsi !”
Uyghur tetqiqat instituti mudiri doktor erkin ekrem kitabning ilmiy qimmitini mueyyenleshtürüp: “doktor
nebijan tursunning sherqiy türkistan tarixining dawalghushqa tolghan bir dewrini téma qilghan, sowét
we eyni dewr chong küchlirining rayonning siyasiy tengpungluqlirigha arilishishidin hasil bolghan
murekkep zaman qatlimini yorutup bergen <uyghur omumiy tarixi> namliq bu qimmetlik chong hejimlik
ilmiy esirining < sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti omumiy tarixi> qismi , köp xil menbelerni boylap
chongqurlap izdinishni tayanch qilghan uzun yilliq japaliq emgekning mehsulidur. Bu eser xelqimizni
wetinimiz tarixining yépiq qalghan sehipiliri bilen tonushup chiqish pursitige ige qilidu hem nöwettiki
bezi özgirishlerning tarixiy seweblirini tonup yétish jehette muhim yip uchliri bilen teminleydu”, dédi.
Ottura asiyadiki tonulghan uyghur tarixchisi, yawropa merkizi asiya tetqiqat jemitining prézidénti
piroféssor doktor ablet kamalof bu eserge baha bérip mundaq deydu: “doktor nebijan tursunning
mezkur tetqiqat esiri xelq’aradiki sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti tarixi tetqiqati we shu dewr siyasiy
kilmatini chüshinishke qoshulghan zor töhpe. Köp tomluq tunji <sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti omumiy
tarixi>ni yaritish uning zor muweppeqiyitidur. U, uyghur tili qatarliq türkiy tillar, rusche, in’glizche we
xitayche til alahidilikliridin paydilinip, sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyitining höjjetliri we mol original uyghur
menbelirini mexpiy sowét arxipliri, gherb arxipliri, xitay menbeliri we shu dewr siyasiy weqelirige
qatnashqan herqaysi tereplerning menbeliri bilen sélishturup analiz qilip, uyghur qatarliq yerlik
xelqlerning sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyitining barliqqa kélishi we uning hökümet, herbiy, iqtisadiy,
medeniyet we bashqa tereplerdin musteqil rawajlinishida achquchluq rol oynash jeryanlirini mol pakitlar
we détallar boyiche yorutup bergen. U, bu arqiliq, tarix sahesidiki uyghur qatarliq yerlik xelqlerning
rolini kichiklitidighan, uni chong döletler siyasitining passip obyéktliri süpitide körsitidighan
nuqtiinezerlerni ret qilghan.”
Uyghur akadémiyesi reisi, ege uniwérsitéti türk dunyasi tetqiqat merkizi bashliqi proféssor doktor
alimjan inayet doktor nebijan tursunning “uyghur omumiy tarixi” we uning “sherqiy türkistan
jumhuriyiti omumiy tarixi” namliq qisimlirigha baha bérip: “uyghur tetqiqati sahesi xitay teripidin qattiq
qamal we nabut qilin’ghan mushundaq bir dewrde tarixshunas doktor nebijan tursunning tetqiqatliri
yéngi bir bösüsh, yéngi bir halqish peyda qilip millitimizge yéngi ümidler béghishlidi. U, uyghur tarixiningpütün dewrliri boyiche tetqiqat élip bérip körünerlik netije qazandi. Uning eshu tetqiqat netijisi- <uyghur
omumiy tarixi>ning birqismi bolghan mezkur <sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti omumiy tarixi> hazirghiche
bu témigha munasiwetlik eserler ichide eng köp menbelik, eng sistémiliq, eng etrapliq, eng tepsiliy, eng
ishenchilik we ilmiy obyéktip eserdur. U, ilmiy tarix métodologiyeliridin, shu dewrdiki original höjjetler,
shahitlarning aghzaki melumatliri, sowét, amérika arxipliri we bashqa mol matériyallardin paydilinip,
sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyitining jeryan, seweb we netijilirini bayan hem tehlil qilip, sherqiy türkistan
jumhuriyiti tarixining peqet kechmishla emes, belki uning bügünki uyghur xelqining siyasiy éngi, milliy
idéologiyesi we kelgüsi tereqqiyatidiki ornini körsitip bergen…” dégenlerni qeyt qildi.
Bu heqte yene uyghur tetqiqat instituti tetqiqatchisi, selchuq uniwérsitéti tarix penliri doktoranti
abduréhim dölet ependi söz qilip :” méningche bu eserning biz üchün ilmiy qimmiti qanchilik zor bolsa,
nöwettiki sherqiy türkistan dawasi üchün körsitidighan emeliy qimmitimu shunchilik zordur. Chünki
tariximizni yaxshi tetqiq qilish bizning dawa istratégiyemizning toghra tüzülüshining muhim shertliridin
biridur. Mezkur katta eser mushu nuqtida intayin muhim bir boshluqni toshquzghan bolup, awam xelq
üchünla emes, shundaqla tarixqa qiziqquchilar üchünla emes, belki dawa sépidiki paaliyetchiler,
siyasetchiler üchünmu choqum oqumisa bolmaydighan ana eser bolushqa munasip dep qaraymen” dédi.
13 tomluq “uyghur omumiy tarixi” ning 5 tomluq” sherqiy türkistan jumhuriyiti omumiy tarixi”qisimliri
neshir qilinip bolun’ghandin kéyinla qalghan tomlirinimu arqa -arqidin oqurmenliri bilen yüz
körüshtürüsh pilanlanmaqta.

The General History of Uyghurs

In the 20th century, the Uyghurs undertook a series of revolutions aiming for national independence and freedom along with their ethnic brothers. As a result of these struggles, two East Turkestan Republics were established on November 12th of 1933 and 1944.Even though the first republic existed for a short period of time and tragically failed without achieving final goals, its legacy of republican ideology, spirit of nationalism and vision of statehood was inherited and further strengthened by the second East Turkestan Republic in 1944. Thus, both republics shared a common vision and intertwined goals.

With the onset of German-Soviet war in June 1941 and with the United States fighting against the Japanese Empire in the Pacific, a World War against fascism began to take place.Gaining the aim and support of allied forces such as the United States and Great Britain, the Chinese people showed even fiercer resistance during the Anti-Japanese War.

The land of the Uyghurs, named Sinkiang by the westerners, Xinjiang by the Chinese, and East Turkestan by the Uyghurs and European sources, became a focal and conflict point of international relations despite being distant from European and Asia-Pacific Front of the War. The first of such conflicts to escalate was the Sino-Soviet one.

In the second half of 1944, the war against Fascism turned towards the victory of allied forces, and the definition of a new world order began to take shape. Within such international context, a second revolution for national liberation and independence took place in the land of Uyghurs, and an independent regime was established by the Uyghurs and other local ethnicities. The East Turkestan Republic and the national liberation movement, a direct result of the Ghulja Uprising of November 7th 1944, went through the stages of establishment, reinforcement, existence, continuance and dissolution. In its five years of lifetime, this regime had lived the final and crucial phases of the WW II, and faced the complicated international relations, conflicting strategic interests and ideologies at beginning of the Cold War that defined the new world order.

However, the East Turkestan Republic that was born in such context, managed to establish the first formal, modern and sophisticated armed forces in Central Asia, vanquishing and containing the outnumbered and well-equipped Kuomintang forces (the Chinese National Army) while ameliorating its institutions of independent statehood. At the same time, the republic failed the Kuomintang government’s attempt to defeat the regime by economic weakening and creating internal division by stirring inter-ethnic conflicts. Just as the leaders of East Turkestan liberation movement defined, this revolution was a part of global revolutions and international political relations.

The significance and necessity of this book:

The East Turkestan Republic has completely ended the Chinese autocratic rule in Ili, Altay, and Tarbaghatay which was based on Chinese chauvinism since 1912 that emphasize the so called superiority and dominancy of Chinese people and language. Additionally, the East Turkestan Republic made every effort to extend the liberation movement over other districts to eliminate the Chinese rule and replace it with a progressive systems of government based on rule of law similar to other modern nations of the time. As a result, a complete secular ruling system with relevant institutions was established, and progress was made on various fields such as military, governance, society, education, commerce, healthcare, civil association, and press freedom.

Unlike the past Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang) governments, the popular ethnic and religious policies adopted by the national government of East Turkestan guaranteed religious, civil, economic and cultural rights, and respected and safeguarded folk customs of both Muslim and non-Muslim ethnicities. Therefore, the government succeeded in uniting all ethnicities that believed in Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Shamanism in the fight against the Chinese rule for the liberation of East Turkestan.

For the first time since 1884, the Uyghur language became the official language of the nation and the government and remained for five years in such status, while languages of other ethnicities were well-protected and developed. National education received particular attention and free education in a multi-language school system was achieved. The national liberation movement of 1944-1949 was not only an indispensable part of the Uyghur and Central Asian history of the 20th century, but also an important chapter of the history of international relations in the 1940s. This historical period of the East Turkestan Republic is strongly linked the ideology, political goals and ambitions, and the national spirit, with significant influence to the current situation and future blueprints of the Uyghur people. This period is also intertwined with the current political and ethnic relations in the land of Uyghurs, and wit the ethnic, religious, cultural, economic, geopolitical and international policies of the Chinese government in the region.

The main objective of the book:

This book is particularly focused on the national liberation movement of the non-Chinese ethnicities such as the Uyghurs, and the national government established as a result of this fight- the East Turkestan Republic.

The purpose and mission of the book:

The main purpose and the mission of the book is to examine the internal and external factors and causes of the break out of the liberation movement; the establishment of the East Turkestan Republic; subsequent battles; the military and political fights against the Chinese rule; nation building efforts and political systems; the government policies in the social, economic and commercial fields and related to the public health, public welfare, culture and education, ethnic, religious, freedom of speech, press and association; the political, socio-economic, and cultural measures taken by the Chinese government; the attempts of the Chinese government to crush the East Turkestan Republic by military, economic, and diplomatic means; and to thoroughly, correctly and objectively narrate and illustrate this brief course of development; and to draw objective conclusions.

Another important mission of the book is to clarify the interaction of various international powers in the region. Specifically, the author explains the position and role of East Turkestan in the US-Soviet and Sino-Soviet relations, and the role and policies of the Soviet Union in the national liberation movement.

Methodologies used in the book:

This book is a typical academic work that is based on academic principles of history. The book adopted methodologies of historical research such as reasoning, contrasting and comparing, substantiation, generalization, abstractive modelling, systematic narration and analysis. Through such methods, the book aims to describe, explain, evaluate and analyze various historic events, their progress and intertwined relations from an objective viewpoint, with the help of multiple historic sources and facts, and draws academic conclusions.

Special attention is paid to keep this work free from superficiality and partial bias, narrating historic events and their progress in details by scrutinizing them to year, month, day, and even the hour in a chronological order, and explaining the identity and background of figures participated in the course of each historic event mentioned. The book involves a general history of a brief historic period of time. Therefore, all aspects and processes relevant to the East Turkestan Republic-period are thoroughly narrated in granular detail with full efforts of the author.

Main Sources:

The original documents related to the East Turkestan Republic and the national liberation movement, speeches of the leaders and participants of historic events, printed matters from the East Turkestan Republic-era, and oral and written memoir of historic witnesses are the main sources of first-hand materials. Oral narratives and materials evidences of a substantial number of low-, mid-, and high-ranked military officers, government officials in administrative and cultural role and other witnesses who have directly participated in the historic events are also utilized. There were around 40 historic witnesses who contributed their efforts to this book.

One of the highlights of this book is the use of numerous archival materials from the Soviet Union relevant to the East Turkestan Republic that have been kept confidential in earlier periods. These archival sources are later cross-referenced with other archive material in Uyghur and Chinese sources to bring clarity to the role, influence, and position of the Soviet Union towards the national liberation movement. Additionally, archival materials from Western diplomatic installations, such as the British and the US consulates, are also referenced to illustrate the course of events and to examine the internal and external relations and positions relevant to the events. The Chinese standpoint of suppression towards the national liberation movement and relevant policies and measures are analyzed using the Chinese sources and the viewpoints established in these materials.

Academic research paper, literature work and other types of printed matters from the western world, Soviet Union, Russia, China and other countries that are relevant to the East Turkestan Republic-period are referenced as secondary sources. This book referred to multiple multi-linguage sources to be completed. Most of the academic and literary works written in Uyghur, Russian, Chinese, English and other Turkic languages since the 1940s are reviewed and utilized. The books in Uyghur, Russian, Chinese and English constitute the main body of such sources.

Main Structure and Content:

This book is titled “the General History of the East Turkestan Republic”, and it is part of a collection named “the Political History of the Uyghurs in Euro-Asia” planned for publication. This title that is dedicated specifically to the East Turkestan Republic and the national liberation movement of the 1944-1949 is composed of four volumes, and is organized in several chapters, headings and subheadings. The book contains numerous historic photos, copies of original documents, archival materials, maps, book covers and illustrations of insignias.

Academic Highlight:

While the work respects the efforts made and the successes achieved in the previous books and academic researches related to this topic, it is evident that they were solely relied on a single source, especially not incorporating, even neglecting Uyghur sources and materials. Analysis of historic events from a ultra-nationalistic, sel-centered point of view, and drawing one-sided conclusions were also commonplace in such works. This paved the way for certain books and papers to become poorly sourced, superficial and biased. The historic events and processes are narrated in this book avoiding such pitfalls and adhering to the principle of impartiality.

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About the Author –Dr. Nabijan Tursun

Dr. Nabijan Tursun

Dr. Nabijan Tursun is a senior editor at Radio Free Asia in the Uyghur Service located in Washington D.C. He is an independent scholar and his research focuses on Uyghur and Central Asian history.

Through 1990 to 1996, he studied at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union in Moscow, which later became the Russian Academy of Sciences. There, he received a PhD in Uyghur history. From 1981 to 1985, he studied at Central University for Nationalities in Beijing, where he received a bachelor’s degree in Uyghur language and literature. He also studied both Persian and Chaghatay languages in Beijing from 1987 to 1988.  From 1988 to 1990, He studied for a master’s degree . Tursun also taught Uyghur literature and history at various institutions, including Xinjiang University, Moscow East Institute, and Kyrgyz National University.

Nabijan Tursun was also a member of the Xinjiang Project of the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute at Johns Hopkins University. He is one of the co-authors of XinjiangChina’s Muslim Borderland,which was published by M. E. Sharpe in 2004. He also co-authored Uyghur Community: Diaspora, Identity and Geopolitics, which was published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2018.

Tursun has published more than 300 articles on Uyghur history and culture. He is the author of The Uyghur Reader, which was published by Dunwoody Press in 2007. He also authored The Issues of Uyghur Ethnogeny in Chinese Historiography,  The Issues of Uyghur Political History in Chinese Historiography, which were  written in Russian and published in Moscow in 1997 and 1998.Tursun has also participated in many international conferences relating to Central Eurasia and presented more than 60 academic papers at many of these conferences that took place in countries like the United States, Russia, Turkey, France, and more.